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glossary

 
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F

Fixed Percentage

Fixed Percentage is a non-variable percentage, which means no matter what the income of the artist is, and/or if it’s being increased/decreased for any reason, the percentage that determines the income of the manager is not changing.

Frontline

The music that has been out for less than 18 months

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G

Gross Revenue

Gross Revenue is the amount of the Total Revenue of the artist minus the amount of the business-related expenses that are being made.

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Search 
Results 

A

Album Cycle

(Album release cycle) includes every step in the creation of an album to the promotion before and after the release until the last show of its tour.

A&R

Artist and Repertoire. The name comes from a time when the A&R's primary role was to connect singers/performers (the artist) to songs or songwriters (the repertoire) and find the perfect fit. This aspect of the job has progressively disappeared with the emergence of more singer/songwriters, such as Bob Dylan and the Beatles, who started to get involved in the writing process as well.

Artist Roster

An artist roster is a list of artists that are signed to a certain label. This includes established, as well as developing artists.

No results

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C

CPA

Certified Public Accountant. A professional certification in accounting for licenced professionals that verifies the holder of the certificate meets necessary education and work requirements.

Creative Brief

A document sent from music supervisors to sync departments describing what type of music they are actively looking for. It might include a scene description or details about the project. 

Call to Action (CTA)

An instruction to the audience to do something (click a link, comment, etc.).

Catalog

A more than an 18-month-old collection of released compositions that are owned by a music publisher through copyright. If a songwriter has not licensed their songs, they are then a part of the songwriter's catalog.

Click-Through Rate (CTR)

The percentage of people that click a link that you advertised.

Composition

The composition of a piece of music, usually owned by the songwriter or the artist (if the artist is involved in the composition process). Royalties are usually paid to the songwriters or publishers.

N/A

Copyright infringement

As a general matter, copyright infringement occurs when a copyrighted work is reproduced, distributed, performed, publicly displayed, or made into a derivative work without the permission of the copyright owner.

Customer relationship management (CRM)

Customer Relationship Management is a system that manages all your company's relationships and interactions with current and potential customers.

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D

DTC

Direct to Consumer; for example, an artist having their own store to sell all merchandise as well as exclusive products (e.g. box set) directly to their fans as opposed to a retailer

Demos

A demo (shortened from "demonstration") is a sample recording of an artist's music, distributed to disc jockeys, recording companies, etc., to demonstrate the merits of the song or performer.

Direct agreements

contracts directly between the record company and artist

Distribution Agreement (M&D deal)

In the music industry, a manufacturing and distribution deal (commonly known as an M&D deal) refers to a standard contractual arrangement between a record label and a music distributor. Under an M&D deal, the distributor pays for the manufacturing costs of an album beginning with the pressing process, all the way through to the printing of the labels.

Drivers

Drivers are one-page documents created by the label to showcase an artist's stats such as the number of streams and sales, or press updates. They are shared with radio stations to induce them into playing the song.

DSP

Digital Service Provider (DSP) is an online store (iTunes, Amazon Music, etc.) or streaming service (Spotify, Apple Music, Tidal, YouTube Music) that features digital albums and singles.  

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E

EPK

The acronym for electronic press kit. While press kits were originally composed of physical copies of vinyl and CDs, EPKs have recently become more popular due to the convenience of a completely digital format.

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I

IFRS

acronym for International Financial Reporting Standarts

ISRC

Direct to Consumer; for example, an artist having their own store to sell all merchandise as well as exclusive products (e.g. box set) directly to their fans as opposed to a retailer

Independent production agreement

an alternative to signing a deal with a loan-out b signing to an independent company that in turn makes a deal with a record label

Inducement letter

also known as a side letter, a document stating that if the artist's company does not deliver the recordingd, the artist will have to deliver the recordings directly to the record label and if the company does not perform under the deal the artist will be financially responsible.

IPR

Intellectual Property protects the "creations of the mind". This means anything considered valuable intellectual property, that is artistic, cultural, or scientific, and was created by a human. The four types of IP are patents, trademarks, copyrights, and registered designs. They give the creator an exclusive right over the use of their creation for a certain period of time.

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J

JD

Abbreviation for Juris Doctor. This is the most common law degree which prepares the recipient to practice law.

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L

LSAT

The acronym for the Law School Admission Test. All aspiring attorneys must pass this exam upon graduation from college in order to be admitted to law school.

LLM

Abbreviation for Master of Laws. This degree can be pursued by someone who has already obtained a JD and passed the bar examination but wishes to further their education in a specific area of law.

Laquer

a disc that is cut once the music master is ready and is then shipped to the manufacturing plant to be used for manufacturing vinyl

Liners (also called Sweepers)

Short pre-recorded samples used by radio stations as segues between songs that give listeners a brief station identifier or promo. Generally 20 seconds or less: “My name is Dua Lipa and you are listening to my new single Don't Start Now on BBC Radio 1”.

Lead time

time spent pitching before the music release or feature

Loan-out

very similar to direct agreements; differences include: the parties involved are the record label and your company, your company agrees to supply your services and recordings, there are legal clauses in place confirming the rights of those services and recording deliveries, and the signage of an inducement letter.

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M

Media Buys

Media buying is part of the paid marketing effort. After identifying the channels, both traditional and digital, relevant to the targeted audience, a media buyer can purchase space in those outlets to increase exposure and ROI.

Most Favored Nation (MFN)

This clause ensures parity between the rights holders (publisher and master). It means the amount you pay the publisher should be the same as the one you pay to the master owner. If one quote is higher (either master or publisher), the fee should be raised or decreased to be equalized. 

Multi-artist deal

also called a label deal, the independent company (typically owned by a producer or record mogul) takes multiple artist's rights and recordings and supllies them to a distributor; many of these artists may not have been signed by the independent company.

Master Recording

The recording of a piece of music, which is usually owned by the artist or the label. Royalties are paid to the owner of the master.

N/A

Master Recording License

(Also called Master Use License) This is an agreement in which the owner of a copyrighted sound recording allows a music user – typically a producer or head of the music department – to use it for a new project.

Media

Outlet or medium, which usually includes all types of communication that transmit information to people through radio, TV, or the internet.

Media Kit/Press Kit

Pre-pack of promotional material that provides information about the artist (introduction, releases, articles, etc.). An EPK (Electronic Press Kit) is the best example. It usually acts as the resume for the artist, designed to provide information about the artist to labels, agents, talent buyers, and many more.

Metadata

Metadata in the context of music is the information embedded in an audio file that is used to identify the content. If the song file itself is the data, the metadata would be the song title, artist name, track length, BPM, and genre.

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NDA

A non-disclosure agreement is a legally binding contract that establishes a confidential relationship with the people involved. The party or parties signing the agreement, agree that sensitive information they may obtain will not be made available to any others.

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B

Bonds

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Bar Examination

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Backline

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BA Clearance

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Boilerplate

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Brand Partnership

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Bullet

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S

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Ticket Holds

A label can hold a portion of the available tickets for specific concerts before they go on sale. They save these tickets directly with the booking agent to offer them to their partners later on.

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R

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P

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U

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V

Value for money

a concept that is widely used in the audit world meaning the quality of the asset is equal to it's cost and benefits

N

T